Ice sculpture is the art of carving shapes out of ice. Sculptures range from small table decorations to entire towns of ice seen in winter festivals all over the world. This art began in China and Russia many centuries ago.
In the 1600's, native hunters and fishermen of the Chinese province of Heilongjiang, on the border of Russia, designed ice lanterns for dark winter nights. They filled buckets with water to make ice. The ice would be slid out and then a hole was dug into the ice block to hold a candle to make a lantern. People started hanging decorated lanterns from their houses and carrying them in carnivals. In 1897, the Transsiberian Railway was extended through the small Chinese fishing town of Harbin in Heilongjiang, once occupied by Russia. As a result of the traffic, Harbin grew into a big city. With below freezing winds from Siberia, and ice from the frozen Songhua river, Harbin became the home of the annual International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival. Currently, this festival features the work of thousands of artists from all over the world.
In 1740, the Empress Anna in Russia, commissioned the first monumental scale ice palace by Piotr Eropkin, The palace included ice cannons that fired ice cannon balls, and an ice elephant linked to a canal through pipes thath sprayed water out of its trunk. Since then, complete ice towns have been built in the northern cities of Russia. In 2000, a replica of Anna's ice palace was built in the first International Sand and Ice festival at St. Petersburg. Nine hundred and eighty square feet and 21 feet tall, the palace was built by fusing together blocks of ice from the Neva river. Russians claim that St. Petersburg was where ice sculpture began.
There are two ways to make ice sculpture: You can carve into a block of ice or make a mold. Blocks of ice are obtained from frozen rivers and lakes. Typically water that freezes slowly makes clear ice and is preferred by artists to make ice sculptures. In some places, artificial blocks of ice are made for this purpose.
You can order custom or designed ice sculptures to use as centerpieces for celebrations such as weddings, birthdays ,etc. Depending on the weather and the structure of the sculpture, ice art can melt in just a few hours or months. The Harbin International Ice festival, for example, runs for two months. Artists enter elaborate ice sculptures at competitions and festivals held annually all over the world.
Ice festivals are seen in places that get very cold. Festivals in Sapporo, Japan, for instance, feature sculpture on an architectural scale such as ice castles and pagodas. The winter carnival in Alaska has participants from over 100 teams annually, including teams from countries such as China and the United States. In Sweden an ice hotel complete with bedrooms and a bar is built every year.
A truly amazing and original artist, Edward St. John Gorey (1925-2000), gave to the world over one hundred works, including The Gashlycrumb Tinies, The Doubtful Guest and The Wuggly Ump; prize-winning set and costume designs for innumerable theater productions from Cape Cod to Broadway; a remarkable number of illustrations in publications such as The New Yorker and The New York Times, and in books by a wide array of authors from Charles Dickens to Edward Lear, Samuel Beckett, John Updike, Virginia Woolf, H.G. Wells, Florence Heide and many others. His well known animated credits for the PBS Mystery series have introduced him to millions of television viewers. Gorey's masterful pen and ink illustrations and his ironic, offbeat humor have brought him critical acclaim and an avid following throughout the world.
Bridget Riley (1931) is a well-known British artist celebrated since the mid-1960s for her distinctive, optically vibrant paintings, called “Op Art.” She explores optical phenomena and juxtaposes color either by using a chromatic technique of identifiable hues or by selecting achromatic colors (black, white or gray). In doing so, her work appears to flicker, pulsate and move, encouraging the viewer’s visual tension. Riley’s vibrant optical pattern paintings, which she painted in the 1960s, were hugely popular and become a hallmark of the period.
American Pop Artist Barbara Kruger was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1945 and left there in 1964 to attend Syracuse University. Early on she developed an interest in graphic design, poetry, writing and attended poetry readings. After studying for a year at Syracuse she moved to New York where she began attending Parsons School of Design in 1965. She studied with fellow artists/photographers Diane Arbus and Marvin Israel, who introduced Kruger to other photographers and fashion/magazine sub-cultures. After a year at Parsons, Kruger again left school and worked at Condé Nast Publications in 1966. Not long after she started to work at Mademoiselle magazine as an entry-level designer, she was promoted to head designer a year later. Later still she worked as a graphic designer, art director, and picture editor in the art departments at “House and Garden”, “Aperture,” and did magazine layouts, book jacket designs, and freelance picture editing for other publications. Her decade of background in design is evident in the work for which she is now internationally renowned. Like Andy Warhol, Kruger was heavily influenced by her years working as a graphic designer.
Kruger’s earliest artworks date to 1969. Large woven wall hangings of yarn, beads, sequins, feathers, and ribbons, they exemplify the feminist recuperation of craft during this period. Despite her inclusion in the Whitney Biennial in 1973 and solo exhibitions at Artists Space and Fischbach Gallery, both in New York, the following two years, she was dissatisfied with her output and its detachment from her growing social and political concerns. In the fall of 1976, Kruger abandoned art making and moved to Berkeley, California, where she taught at the University of California for four years and steeped herself in the writings of Walter Benjamin and Roland Barthes. She took up photography in 1977, producing a series of black-and-white details of architectural exteriors paired with her own textual ruminations on the lives of those living inside. Published as an artist’s book, Picture/Readings (1979) foreshadows the aesthetic vocabulary Kruger developed in her mature work. By 1979 Barbara Kruger stopped taking photographs and began to employ found images in her art, mostly from mid-century American print-media sources, with words collaged directly over them. Her 1980 untitled piece commonly known as "Perfect" portrays the torso of a woman, hands clasped in prayer, evoking the Virgin Mary, the embodiment of submissive femininity; the word “perfect” is emblazoned along the lower edge of the image. These early collages in which Kruger deployed techniques she had perfected as a graphic designer, inaugurated the artist’s ongoing political, social, and especially feminist provocations and commentaries on religion, racial and gender stereotypes, consumerism, corporate greed, and power.
Is a Canadian artist, writer,cartoonist and toy designer and entrepreneur, best known for his work in comic books, such as the fantasy series Spawn.In the late 1980s and early 1990s, McFarlane became a comic book superstar due to his work on Marvel Comic's Spiderman Marv franchise, on which he was the artist to draw the first full appearances of the supervillain Venom In 1992, he helped form Image Comics, pulling the character Spawn from his high school portfolio and updating him for the 1990s. Spawn was a popular hero in the 1990s and encouraged a trend in creator owned comic book properties.
Since leaving inking duties on Spawn with issue No. 70 (February 1998), McFarlane has illustrated comic books less often, focusing on entrepreneurial efforts, such as McFarlane Toys and Todd McFarlane Entertainment, a film and animation studio. In September 2006, it was announced that McFarlane would be the Art Director of the newly created 38 Studios, formerly Green Monster Games.
In the early 1980s, McFarlane went to college on a baseball scholarship, and studied graphic art.
Seeking to find work drawing comics, McFarlane sent out dozens of submissions each month to editors, totaling over 700 submissions in total, most of which were in the form of pinups. Half resulted in no response, while the other half resulted in rejection letters, though he received some constructive criticism from a few editors. One of them,DC, gave McFarlane a dummy script in order to gauge McFarlane's page-to-page storytelling ability. Amendola's advice that McFarlane's submissions needed to focus page-to-page stories rather than pinups led McFarlane to create a five-page sample that he initially sent to Marvel Comics.They passed it along to the editors of the Marvel imprint Epic Comics, which published it. He soon began drawing for both DC and Marvel. McFarlane illustrated the latter three issues for Detective Comics, Batman: Year Two storyline. He moved to Marvel's The Incredible Hulk, which he drew from 1987 to 1988.
Caroline McCarthy was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1971. She studied Fine Art at the National College of Art and Design, Dublin, 1989 – 1994 and at Goldsmiths College, London, 1997 - 1998. She lives and works in London. Past awards include the Allied Irish Bank Artist Award in 2001; Open Award at EV+A 1996 and 2000; and a Multi-Annual Bursary award from the Arts Council of Ireland, 2007/2008. Her work is included in the collection of Irish Museum of Modern Art, Allied Irish Bank, Arts Council of Ireland, Zabludowicz Collection UK, Berge Collection Spain, and many private collections.
Crisps, toilet-paper, plastic bags, packaging, rubbish and furniture are some of the raw materials used by Caroline McCarthy to bring value and taste to the surface of everyday objects and images.
Bringing such unassuming material into conversation with methods of art production and display, her work falls somewhere between the conceptual and the comical, the mundane and the poetic.
Corey was born in Nashville, Tennessee in a family of Artists. He was exposed to color and form at an early age by his grandmother a quilt artist, and his mother who was gifted with a feel for design and an eye for detail which she expressed in all aspects of her daily life. This is the root of Barksdale's creative expression. Barksdale earned his Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree at the Atlanta College of Art in 1994. During this period he was influenced by the abstract expressionists and admired such mainstream artists as Jasper Johns, Clifford Still, William deKooning. The African-American masters Aaron Douglas, John Biggers, Romere Bearden, and William Tolliver instilled in him a appreciation of African/American artistic heritage.
A prolific Atlanta artist, his fine art subject matter ranges from human figures to abstract designs. He has concentrated his talents on themes that portray the love and strength that exists within the African American community. His work can be seen on the covers of books, magazines, musical artists CD covers and posters. He enjoys giving back to his community through art education.
Jerry was born june 11, 1934. He is an American photographer and the grandfather of the photomontage in 20th century in America.
When he was fourteen, he began his interest in photography. He believed that through photography he could exist outside of himself, to live in a world captured through the lens. Even though he was not an "A" student, he managed to land a few jobs, mostly photographs of models. Eventually Uelsmann went on to earn a BA from the Rochester Institute of Technology and M.S. and M.F.A. degrees from Indiana University. Soon after, he began teaching photography at the University of Florida in 1960. In 1967, he had his first solo exhibit at the Museum of Modern Art. This boosted his photography career.
Uelsmann is a master printer, producing complex photographs with multiple negatives and a lot of darkroom work. He uses up to a dozen enlargers at a time to produce his final images, and has a large archive of negatives that he has shot over the years. The negatives that Uelsmann uses are known to reappear within his work, acting as a focal point in one work, and background as another. He didn't care about the boundaries given by the photographers of his time. He wanted to share with the viewer the images from his imagination and saw photomontage as the means to do so. He still uses traditional equipment today.
Without thinking too much about it in specific terms, I was showing the America I knew and observed to others who might not have noticed.
Born in New York City in 1894, Norman Rockwell always wanted to be an artist. At age 14, Rockwell enrolled in art classes at The New York School of Art .Two years later, in 1910, he left high school to study art at The National Academy of Design. He transferred to The Art Students League, where he studied with Thomas Fogarty and George Bridgman.
He painted his first commission of four Christmas cards before his sixteenth birthday. While still in his teens, he was hired as art director of Boys’ Life, the official publication of the Boy Scouts of America, and began a successful freelance career illustrating a variety of young people’s publications.
At age 21, Rockwell’s family moved to New Rochelle, New York. Rockwell set up a studio with the cartoonist Clyde Forsythe and produced work for such magazines as Life, Literary Digest, and Country Gentleman. In 1916, the 22-year-old Rockwell painted his first cover for The Saturday Evening Post, the magazine considered by Rockwell to be the “greatest show window in America.” Over the next 47 years, another 321 Rockwell covers would appear on the cover of the Post.
The 1930s and 1940s are considered to be the best years of Rockwell’s career. In 1930 he married Mary Barstow, a schoolteacher, and the couple had three sons, Jarvis, Thomas, and Peter. The family moved to Arlington, Vermont, in 1939, and Rockwell’s work began to reflect small-town American life.
In 1943, inspired by President Franklin Roosevelt’s address to Congress, Rockwell painted the Four Freedoms paintings. They were reproduced in four consecutive issues of The Saturday Evening Post with essays by contemporary writers. Rockwell’s interpretations of Freedom of Speech, Freedom to Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear proved to be enormously popular. The works toured the United States in an exhibition that was jointly sponsored by the Post and the U.S. Treasury Department and, through the sale of war bonds, raised more than $130 million for the war effort.
In 1943 a fire destroyed his Arlington studio and a lot of his paintings and his collection of historical costumes and props.
In 1953, the Rockwell family moved from Arlington, Vermont, to Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Six years later, Mary Barstow Rockwell died unexpectedly. In collaboration with his son Thomas, Rockwell published his autobiography, My Adventures as an Illustrator, in 1960. The Saturday Evening Post carried excerpts from the best-selling book in eight consecutive issues, with Rockwell’s Triple Self-Portrait on the cover of the first.
In 1963, he ended his 47-year association with The Saturday Evening Post and began to work for Look magazine. During his 10-year association with Look, Rockwell painted pictures illustrating some of his deepest concerns and interests, including civil rights, America’s war on poverty, and the exploration of space.
In 1973, Rockwell established a trust to preserve his artistic legacy by placing his works in the custodianship of the Old Corner House Stockbridge Historical Society, later to become Norman Rockwell Museum at Stockbridge. The trust now forms the core of the Museum’s permanent collections. In 1976, in failing health, Rockwell became concerned about the future of his studio. He arranged to have his studio and its contents added to the trust. In 1977, Rockwell received the nation’s highest civilian honor, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
In 2008, Rockwell was named the official state artist of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, thanks to a dedicated effort from students in Berkshire County, where Rockwell lived for the last 25 years of his life.
Tim was born in 1958, in Burbank, California to Jean Burton, the owner of a cat-themed gift shop, and Bill Burton, a former minor league baseball player. When he was a preteen, he would make short films in his backyard using stop motion animation techniques or shoot them on 8 mm film without sound (one of his oldest known films is The Island of Doctor Agor, that he made when he was 13 years old). He wasn't a very good student in High School. He enjoyed painting, drawing and watching films. He was influenced by the works of such childhood heroes as Dr. Seuss and Roald Dahl.
He attended the California Institute of the Arts in Santa Clarita, California, to study character animation. As a student he made the shorts "Stalk of the Celery Monster" and "King and Octopus".He graduated in 1979.
"Stalk of the Celery Monster" attracted the attention of Walt Disney Productions' animation department, which offered Burton an animator's apprenticeship at the studio.He worked as an animator, storyboard artist and concept artist on films such as The Fox and the Hound, The Black Cauldron, and Tron. However, Burton's personal style clashed with Disney's standards, and he longed to work on solo projects.
While at Disney in 1982, Burton made his first short, Vincent, a six-minute black-and-white stop motion animation film based on a poem written by the filmmaker, and depicting a young boy who fantasizes that he is his hero Vincent Price, with Price himself providing narration. The film was shown at the Chicago Film Festival and released for two weeks in one Los Angeles cinema. This was followed by Burton's first live-action production Hansel and Gretel, a version of Brothers Grimm fairy tale for the Disney Channel.The short would finally go on public display in 2009 at the Museum of Modern Art, and again in 2011 as part of the Tim Burton art exhibit at LACMA.
Burton's next live-action short, Frankenweenie was released in 1984. It tells the story of a young boy who tries to revive his dog after it is run over by a car. After Frankenweenie was completed, Disney fired Burton, saying he was spending the company's resources on doing a film that would be too dark and scary for children to see. This movie was released recently into theaters and has been very successful.
Other stop motion animation movies: The Nightmare Before Christmas, Corpse Bride, James and the Giant Peach and Frankenweenie.